Ghizer District is the most northwestern part of the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Its capital is Gakuch, Ghizer is crossroads between Gilgit and Chitral (which are connected via Shandur Pass) and also to Afghanistan, Tajikistan via Kurumber valley of Khodarg Werth Pass through Tehsil Ishkomen. Ghizer is a multi-ethnic district and three major languages are spoken; Khowar, Shina and Burushaski. There are also Wakhi speakers in Ishkoman and some Gujjars and Tajiks.
Ghizer is distorted form the name “Gherz” which means “refugees” in Khowar. Whenever the Mehtar of Chitral did unjust with their people in Chitral and forced them to migrate towards Gupis. They were settled in the area between Chitral and Gupis and the area called Gherz and the people were called Gherzic. When Zulafiqar Ali Bhutto the President of Pakistan abolished FCR and Rajgi system and made another administrative district comprising four Tehsils (Political districts) the name Ghizer was agreed unanimously.
The highest peak in Ghizer District is Koyo Zom (6,871 m) of Hindu Kush Range which lies on the edge of Ghizer District and Chitral. Some of the tourist attractive sites in the district are Ishkoman, Yasin, Gupis, Phander and Punial valleys.
Major rivers in the district is Ghizer River, which is recognized as Gupis River in the east of Gupis town. Some of its tributaries include Karambar River, Ishkoman River, and Yasin River.
Burusho appear to have once occupied all the northern valleys of present-day Ghizer. Today, they remain only in Yasin Valley, although Brushaski place names abound in Bahushtaro Gol and Ishkoman. Chinese traveler of the 5th to 8th centuries, who passed through Yasin and Ishkoman on their way to visit the renowned Budhist monasteries in Darel and Swat, knew the region as Bru-Zha, suggesting a Burusho identity for population. Migration of Shina speakers from the south and Khowar speakers from the west probably displaced the Burusho. The Khushwaqt family, a branch of Chitral’s Katur dynasty, won control of upper Citral and Varshighoom(Yasin), ruling from Yasin Ghizer’s lower region, known as Punial, become a bone of contention between Gilgit and Chitral, and by the 19th century, Punial had become a separate state with its own raja. During this time refugees from blood feuds in Indus Kohistan migrated north into Punial and Ghizer. Although about half of Punial’s and Ghizer’s present population are descendants of these refugees, almost all people in the region speak Khowar, with shina also widely spoken. After the settlement of Chitral’s borders in 1918, Ghizer became part of Gilgit Agency. Ghizer, which long had its own identity was made a separate District in 1974 by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, however, General Zia merged it with Gilgit district in 1985, in 1989 once again became its own district.